Glossary of Terms

For your convenience, we've included over 200 definitions of technical terms used on this website that we believe are helpful to understanding the content.

A

AGE HARDENING

A process of increasing the hardness and strength by the precipitation of particles of a phase from a supersaturated solid solution alloy. The hardening cycle usually consists of heating or annealing at a temperature sufficiently high to maintain solid solution, rapid cooling, or quenching to retain the supersaturated solid solution, and subsequent heating at a temperature lower than the solution anneal to effect the precipitation.

ALLOY

A substance having metallic properties and composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal.

ALPHA

The name of a phase or of a certain range of copper alloys which contains one or more alloying elements dissolved in copper, the phase being a homogeneous solid solution.

ALPHA-BETA BRASS

A series of copper-zinc alloys containing approximately 55% to 63% copper and the remainder mostly, if not all, zinc and composed of crystals or grains of both the alpha and the beta phases.

ANNEALED TEMPER

See Temper.

ANNEALING

A process involving heating and cooling designed to effect: 1) softening of a cold-worked structure by recrystallization or grain growth or both; 2) softening of an age-hardened alloy be causing a nearly complete precipitation of the second phase in relatively coarse form; 3) softening of certain age-hardenable alloys by dissolving the second phase and cooling rapidly enough to obtain a supersaturated solution; 4) relief of residual stress.

ANODE

1) In corrosion processes, usually the metal that has the greater tendency to dissolve. 2) In electro-plating, the positive electrode used in a plating bath.

ANVIL EFFECT

In an identification hardness test, the bulge formed on the anvil side of the specimen which indicates that the hardness determination is of questionable accuracy.

ARBOR

A cylindrical core around which metal is wound to obtain a desired inside diameter of the wound coil or roll.

AREA REDUCTION

The decrease in cross-section of a product by rolling or drawing. This is a measure of the temper of metal in the cold worked condition.

AS-HOT-ROLLED

A condition of a metal mill product resulting from hot rolling; soft, not cleaned nor drawn or rolled to size.

ASTM

Abbreviation for “American Society for Testing and Materials.”

AUTOMOTIVE SERVICE TUBE

See Colis

AXIS - HORIZONTAL

See Coils.

AXIS - VERTICAL

See Coils.

B

BAR

A solid rectangular section, or one with two plane parallel surfaces and round or other simple regularly shaped edges, up to and including 12" in width and over 0.188" in thickness. 1) Bar, Cast - Flat castings for rolling into sheet and strip. 2) Bar, Bus Stock - High conductivity copper bar stock of any dimension intended for use as an electrical conductor. Normally drawn to cross section.

BARREL PLATING

A method of plating small parts in which the parts are placed in a perforated barrel, which revolves partially submerged in a plating solution.

BEND TEST

See Tests.

BETA

The name of a second phase in the internal structure of certain copper alloys, generally harder and less ductile than the alpha phase. The beta phase renders the alloy more ductile when hot and less ductile when cold.

BLANK

A piece from any wrought product intended for subsequent fabrication by such operations as forming, bending, cupping, drawing, and hot pressing.

BLANKING

The process of cutting metal blanks by a die and punch set in a press, or by sawing or shearing.

BLISTER

A void in, or raised spot on the surface of a metal, caused by expansion of entrapped gas in the metal.

BRASS

Any copper alloy with zinc as the principal alloying element, with or without small quantities of some other element.

BRINELL HARDNESS

See Tests.

BRONZE

Originally a term for copper alloys having tin as the only or principal alloying element. In modern usage the term "Bronze" is seldom used alone, and in the terms "Phosphor Bronze" or "Tin Bronze" is used for indicating copper-tin alloys. In fact, the term "Bronze", together with a suitable modifying adjective has in recent years been extended to apply to any of a great variety of copper alloys.

BUCKLE

Alternate bulges and hollows recurring along the length of a flat product with the edges remaining relatively flat.

BUFFED SURFACE FINISH

See Finish.

BUFFING

The finishing of metal surfaces by rubbing with a compound applied to the pliable rim of a wheel usually consisting of a large number of treated or untreated muslin discs sewed together, and which rotates at high speed. Coloring and cutting are two types of buffing procedures.

BULGING

The expanding of a portion of the body of a drawn shell below the top or neck.

BURNISHING

A fabrication method of securing a smooth finished surface by slight deformation with highly polished tools.

BURR

The thin ridge or roughness left by a cutting operation such as slitting, shearing, blanking, or sawing.

BUS BAR AND BUS CONDUCTOR

Rigid, high conductivity copper electrical conductor or tubular or solid section.

C

CAKE

A cast shape, rectangular in cross-section, for rolling.

CAMBER

See "Edgewise Curvature".

CASTING

An article formed by solidification of molten metal in a mold.

CATHODE COPPER

See Copper.

CATHODIC PROTECTION

Reduction or prevention of corrosion of a metal surface by making it a cathode, for example by the use of sacrificial anodes or impressed currents.

CDA

Abbreviation for “Copper Development Association, Inc.”

CHATTER MARKS

A series of transverse ripples encircling a drawn product visible on outer or inner surfaces.

COIL

A length of flat rolled product wound into a cylindrical spiral.

COIL TAIL

Effective straight section of metal at coil O.D.

COINING

A process of impressing images or characters from a die onto plain metal surfaces.

COLD ROLLING

See Rolling.

COLD SHUT

1) A discontinuity that appears on the surface of cast metal as a result of two streams of liquid metal meeting and failing to unite. 2) On a forging, a portion of the surface that is separated by oxide from the main body of the metal. See Lap.

COLD WORKING

The process of changing the form or cross-section of a piece of metal at a temperature below the softening or recrystallization point, but commonly at or about room temperature. It includes rolling, drawing, pressing, and stretching.

COLLAPSING PRESSURE

The external hydrostatic or pneumatic pressure required to collapse a tube or other hollow article.

CONCENTRICITY

See Tube Measurement Terms.

CONDENSER TUBE

See Tube, Heat Exchanger Tube.

CONDENSER TUBE PLATE

Plate manufactured to special thickness tolerances and furnished in various contours as tube sheets or head plates in condensers and heat exchangers.

COPPER

Commercially Pure Copper - Metal for which the specified minimum copper content is not less than 99.88%, silver being counted as copper.

Modified Copper - Metal for which the specified minimum copper content is less than 99.88% and not less than 99.3%, silver being counted as copper.

1) Arsenical, Tough Pitch Copper (Copper No. 141) - A modified tough pitch copper containing substantial amounts of arsenic regardless of origin or treatment.

2) Cathode Copper - A commercially pure copper electrolytically refined in cathode form.

3) Electrolytic Tough Pitch Copper (Copper No. 110) - A commercially pure high conductivity copper of any origin which has been refined by electrolytic deposition, then melted, oxidized, and brought to tough pitch or controlled low oxygen content, and finally cast into cakes, billets, wire bars, etc., suitable for hot or cold working, or both.

4) Fire Refined Copper (Copper Nos. 125, 127, 128, 129, and 130) - A commercially pure copper of any origin or type which is finished by furnace refining without at any stage having been electrolytically refined.

5) Lake Copper (Copper Nos. 113, 114, 115, 116, 125, 127, 128, 129, and 130) - A commercially pure copper from the Lake Superior district generally fire refined and containing variable, but controlled amounts of silver and arsenic. Such copper of low arsenic content is called Prime Lake Copper, while that of higher arsenic content is called Arsenical Lake Copper--also Low, Medium, and High Arsenical Lake Copper. Also see Arsenical Copper and Silver Bearing Copper.

6) Oxygen Free Copper (Copper Nos. 101 and 102) - A commercially pure high-conductivity copper which has been produced in such a manner as to contain no oxide or residual deoxidants. It has very high resistance to hydrogen embrittlement.

7) Oxygen-Free, Silver Bearing Copper (Copper Nos. 104, 105, and 107) - A commercially pure high-conductivity copper containing the designated element (silver) in amounts as agreed upon between the supplier and the consumer for the purpose of raising the softening temperature.

8) Phosphorous Deoxidized Arsenical Copper (Copper No. 142) - A modified deoxidized copper containing the designated element (arsenic) in amounts as agreed upon between the supplier and the consumer mainly for the purpose of increasing corrosion resistance.

9) Phosphorous Deoxidized Copper, High Residual Phosphorous (Copper No. 122) - A commercially pure copper which has been deoxidized with phosphorous, leaving a relatively high residual phosphorous content. It is not susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement but is of relatively low electrical conductivity due to the amount of phosphorous content.

10) Phosphorous Deoxidized Copper, Low Residual Phosphorous (Copper No. 120) - A commercially pure copper which has been deoxidized with phosphorous in such a manner as to leave a very low phosphorous content. It is not readily susceptible to hydrogen embrittelment and has an electrical conductivity slightly lower than that of high-conductivity copper.

11) Phosphorous Deoxidized Copper, Silver Bearing (Copper Nos. 121 and 123) - A commercially pure deoxidized copper containing the designated element (silver) in amounts agreed upon between the supplier and the consumer.

12) Phosphorous Deoxidized Copper, Tellurium Bearing Copper (Copper No. 145) - A modified deoxidized copper containing the designated element (tellurium) in amounts as agreed upon between the supplier and the consumer to improve machinability. The electrical conductivity is somewhat lower than that of electrolytic tough pitch copper.

13) Silver Bearing (Argentiferous) Copper (Copper Nos. 104, 105, 107, 113, 114, 115, 116, 121, 123, 127, 128, 129, and 130) - Any copper containing substantial amounts of silver, regardless of origin or treatment.

14) Silver Bearing Tough Pitch Copper (Copper Nos. 113, 114, 115, and 116) - A commercially pure high conductivity tough pitch copper containing silver in amounts agreed upon between the supplier and the consumer for the purpose of raising the softening temperature.

15) Tough Pitch Copper (Copper Nos. 110, 111, 113, 114, 115, 116, 125, 127, 128, 129, 130, and 141) - Commercially pure or modified copper, either electrolytically or fire refined, containing a controlled amount of oxygen for the purpose of obtaining a level set in the casting.

COPPER ANODE

See Anode.

COPPER DRAINAGE TUBE

See Tube.

COPPER FOIL

See Foil.

COPPER SERVICE TUBE

See Tube, Copper Water Tube

COPPER WATER TUBE

See Tube, Copper Water Tube

CORROSION

The deterioration or failure of metals and alloys by chemical or electro-chemical processes.

1) Dealuminification - A phenomenon somewhat similar to dezincification involving loss of aluminum.

2) Denickelification - A phenomenon somewhat similar to dezincification involving loss of nickel.

2) Denickelification - A phenomenon somewhat similar to dezincification involving loss of nickel.

4) Erosion - The abrasion of metal or other material by liquid or gas, usually accelerated by presence of solid particles of matter in suspension, and sometimes by corrosion.

a) Cavitation - The damage caused to a material by a moving liquid and associated with the formation and collapse of cavities in the liquid at the solid-liquid interface.

b) Impingement Attack - A type of localized corrosion caused by the striking of a liquid, containing entrained gases, on a metal surface.

5) Stress Corrosion - Spontaneous failure of metals by cracking under combined action of corrosion and stress, residual or applied. See Season Cracking.

CORROSION FATIGUE

The deterioration of properties resulting from repeated stressing of a metal in a corrosive medium. The rate of deterioration is greater than that resulting from either repeated stressing or corrosion alone.

CREEP

The flow or plastic deformation of metals held for long periods of time at stresses lower than the normal yield strength. The effect is particularly important if the temperature of stressing is in the vicinity of the recrystallization temperature of the metal. Also see Tests.

CROWN

The variation in thickness across the product from edge to center or edge to edge.

CUP TEST

See Tests.

CUTTING

1) The procedure of bringing a product to desired dimensions by such operations as slitting, shearing, sawing, and blanking. 2) As applied to surface finishing--cutting through or removing the surface of a metal with a buffing wheel and suitable abrasive compound usually coarser than that used for buffing. See Buffing.

D

DEALUMINIFICATION

See Corrosion.

DEBURRING

Removing rough or sharp edges left on metal by cutting operations.

DENICKELIFICATION

See Corrosion.

DEOXIDIZED

A term applied to any metal or alloy to indicate that it has been treated to remove oxygen. It is specifically applied to copper and refers to removal of oxygen by means of phosphorous or other strong deoxidizing agents.

DEZINCIFICATION

See Corrosion.

DIAMETER

Average Inside or Average Outside - See Tube Measurement Terms.

DIAMETER AT ANY POINT

Inside or Outside - See Tube Measurement Terms

DIE SCRATCH

A longitudinal scratch on the surface of any drawn product resulting from the use of a roughened die or from the drag of a foreign particle between die and product.

DIP SOLUTION

Any chemical solution used to produce a specific color or finish on copper or copper alloys. Also see Pickle.

DISH

The transverse departure of the concave surface from a straight line from edge to edge.

DOG LEG

Slit strip showing abrupt change and reversal in longitudinal direction.

DRAINAGE TUBE, (COPPER)

See Tube, Copper Drainage Tube, DWV.

DRAWING

1) The process of pulling flat products, rod wires, tube, shapes, etc., through a die. This effects a reduction in size or change in shape of the cross-section and hardens the metal. 2) The process of making articles in a press from blanks cut from flat products in which the gauge is reduced by pushing the metal between a punch and die to develop the sidewalls of the part.

DRIFTING

The piercing of a hole and turning up a collar or flange, on sheet, strip, or articles made therefrom.

DRY ROLLED FINISH

Also “Bright Rolled Finish.” See Finish.

DUCTILITY

The property of a metal that permits permanent deformation before fracture by stress in tension.

E

EARING

A wavy projection in a regular geometric pattern on the rim of drawn cups formed in the course of deep drawing, as a result of directional properties or anisotropy of the sheet.

EDGE CONTOURS

See Finished Edges.

EDGEWISE CURVATURE

The lateral departure of the edges from a straight line, which may be unidirectional or reversing; in the latter case.

ELONGATION

The permanent extension of a specimen which has been stretched to rupture in a tension test. The percentage elongation is an indication of ductility. See Tests, Tension.

ENDURANCE TEST

See Tests

EROSION

See Corrosion.

ETCHING

1) As applied to mill products and forgings, an attack by corrosive media resulting in pitting or outline of structural details of the metal. 2) In metallography, the process of revealing structural details by the preferential attack of reagents on a metal surface.

EXPANSION TEST

See Tests.

F

FATIGUE

The tendency for a metal to break under conditions of repeated cyclic stressing considerably below the ultimate tensile strength.

FINISH

The condition of the surfaces of the products, produced by normal or special mill procedures. Several types of finishes can be produced as follows:

1) Acid Dipped-Dry, Rolled Finish - The finish obtained by cold dry rolling on polished rolls of material previously bichromate dipped or bright dipped, giving a burnished appearance and retaining the color obtained by dipping.

2) Bichromate Dipped Finish - A semi-matte finish approaching the true color of the metal, obtained by immersion in an aqueous solution of sodium bichromate and sulfuric acid to remove scale and oxide, using the following formula: sulfuric acid 12 ounces; sodium bichromate 4 ounces; water 1 gallon.

3) Bright Annealed Finish - The finish obtained by annealing under conditions of controlled atmosphere to prevent oxidation and to retain the original luster of the product. Also see Annealing.

4) Bright Dipped Finish - A bright finish having the true color of the metal obtained by immersion in an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid and nitric acid, using the following formula: sulfuric acid 2 gallons; nitric acid 1 gallon; water 1 to 2 quarts; hydrochloric acid 1/2 fluid ounce.

5) Bright Rolled Finish - See Dry Rolled Finish.

6) Brush Brass Finish - A frosted finish obtained on brass by brushing with a Tampico (Bristol brush) wheel treated with brush rouge and rotating at high speeds.

7) Buffed Surface Finish - The finish obtained by buffing with rouge or similar fine abrasive, resulting in a high gloss or polish. This may be applied in one operation or two, commonly known as cutting and coloring operations.

8) Clean Annealed Finish - A finish characterized by a light iridescent film generally obtained on copper alloys which have been annealed in a controlled atmosphere.

9) Cold Rolled Finish - The finish obtained by cold rolling of plain pickled strip with a lubricant; giving a relatively smooth appearance. In the case of sheet or strip, cold rolling may be done without any lubricant, the finish then being similar to that described under Dry Rolled Finish.

10) Dichromate Dipped Finish - See Bichromate Dipped Finish.

11) Drawn Finish - The finish obtained on tube, wire, and drawn rod, bar and strip by drawing through a die resulting in a relatively smooth and bright appearance.

12) Dry Rolled Finish (Bright Rolled Finish)

a) The finish obtained by cold rolling on polished rolls without the use of any coolant or metal lubricant, on material previously plain pickled, bichromate, or bright dipped.

b) The finish obtained by the rolling or tumbling of brass articles in a barrel with either dry sawdust, leather, or scrap cork.

13) Hot Rolled Finish - The finish obtained by rolling metal while hot resulting in a dark, oxidized and relatively rough surface.

14) Plain Pickled Finish - The finish obtained by immersion in sulfuric acid solution. This effectively removes most heavy scale and oxides on yellow brasses, but is less effective on other alloys and will not remove any thin surface films of deposited copper. The color is, therefore, usually duller than that of bright dipped or bichromate dipped material.

15) Planish Finish - A bright smooth finish usually obtained by rubbing metals together.

16) Satin Finish - See Scratch Brushed Finish.

17) Scratch Brushed Finish (Satin Finish) - The finish obtained by mechanically brushing the surface with wire bristle brushes or by buffing with greaseless compound.

FINISHED EDGES

Smooth edges produced on flat wire, strip, or bar, by drawing or rolling with or without previous slitting. The edge contours most commonly used are Square Corners, Rounded Corners, and Full Rounded Edges

FLATNESS

The degree to which a surface of a flat product approaches a plane. See Dish and Longitudinal Curl.

FLAT PRODUCT

A product with rectangular or square solid section and relatively great in length in proportion to thickness.

1) Drawn Flat Product - Flat product brought to final dimensions by drawing through a die, and furnished in flat straight lengths, on spools, or in rolls. The corners or edges may be square or of other contours.

2) Rolled Flat Product - Flat product brought to final thickness by rolling, and furnished in flat straight lengths, on spools, or in rolls. Longitudinal edges may be those resulting from final rolling to thickness or the product may be brought to final width by shearing, slitting, sawing, machining, or rolling. The corners or edges may be square or of other contours.

FLATTENING

The mill operation performed on rolled flat products to reduce departure from flatness, such as curl and dish. See Straightening and Flattening.

FLATTENING TEST

See Tests.

FLOW LINES

Deformation of the crystal structure revealed on a polished and etched section of a hot or cold formed piece which discloses the manner in which the metal is made to fill and follow a die contour.

FLUX

1) In melting, a substance added to the melt to promote removal of foreign materials, and protect the surface. 2) In brazing or welding, a substance introduced to remove oxide and impurities.

FOIL

A term often applied to a thin flat rolled section usually 0.005" or less in thickness.

FOLD

See Lap.

FREE MACHINING

The quality of an alloy which enables it to be cut in automatic machines at relatively high speeds yielding a short brittle chip.

FULL ROUNDED EDGES

See Finished Edges.

G

GAUGE

1) The instrument used to measure thickness or diameter. 2) Term sometimes used to designate thickness.

GAUGE NUMBER

A number in a specific series used to designate a dimension. There are several series of such gauge numbers, of which the most familiar are the American Wire Gauge or Brown & Sharpe and Birmingham or Stubs.

GRAIN

A solid polyhedral (or many sided) crystal consisting of groups of atoms bound together in a regular geometric pattern. In mill practice grains are usually studied only as they appear in one plane.

GRAIN BOUNDARY

The line of demarcation between grains.

GRAIN GROWTH

The process by which individual grains coalesce to form larger and, therefore, fewer grains. This is usually brought about by annealing and results in the softening of the metal as well as changes in other properties.

GRAIN SIZE

The average diameter of grains, usually determined microscopically, of an etched plane surface of the metal. See ASTM E 112.

H

HALF HARD TEMPER

See Temper.

HARD TEMPER

See Temper.

HARDNESS

The resistance of metal to plastic deformation by indentation. The most common method of measurement is Rockwell. Other methods are Brinell, Scleroscope, Tukon, and Vickers.

HARDNESS NUMBER

The number used to designate the hardness of metal. The number is related to the scale of values of a particular hardness test, as Rockwell B 80 or Brinell 150.

HEAT CRACKING

Spontaneous failure of some metals by cracking under combined action of elevated temperature and stress (residual or applied). Fire cracking is a form of heat cracking resulting from residual stress and externally applied heat.

HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE

See Tube.

HEAT TREATMENT

A combination of heating and cooling operations applied to a metal or alloy in the solid state to produce changes in physical and mechanical properties. Also see Age Hardening, Annealing and Quenching.

HOT ROLLING

See Rolling.

HOT WORKING

The process of changing the form or cross-section of a piece of metal at a temperature above its recrystallization temperature.

HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT

In oxygen-bearing copper, a condition of low ductility resulting from absorption of hydrogen at high temperature, internal reduction of cuprous oxide and creation of intergranular holes or cracks by the accompanying generation of steam.

IACS

Abbreviation for “International Annealed Copper Standard.”

I

IMPACT TEST

Abbreviation for International Annealed Copper Standard.

INCLUSIONS

Particles of foreign material (usually chips, dirt, carbon, oxides) that are held mechanically on or within the metal.

INGOT

A copper or copper-alloy casting of small rectangular shape weighing about 20-35 lbs. for remelting.

INHIBITORS

Elements added in small amount to alloys to increase the resistance of the alloys to corrosion.

INTERNAL STRESS

See Stress, Residual.

INTERCRYSTALLINE, INTERGRANULAR

Terms used interchangeably to indicate a path along the grain boundaries and between the crystals or grains rather than through the grains.

INTERCRYSTALLINE CRACKING

Fracture of metal that follows along the grain boundaries and between crystals or grains.

L

LAMINATION

A surface defect appearing as a seam, caused by folding over hot metal, fins, or sharp corners and then rolling or forging, but not welding, them into the surface.

LENGTHS

1) Mill Lengths - Certain uniform lengths subject to established tolerances with short lengths included according to established schedule.

2) Multiple Lengths - Lengths of integral multiples of a base length, with suitable allowance for cutting if and as specified. Several different multiples of the base length may be included in any lot, at the mills' discretion.

3) Specified Lengths - Indicated uniform lengths, subject to established length tolerances; ie. 12'-0", 9'-7", or 0'-4 1/2" are specific lengths.

4) Specific Lengths with Ends - Indicated uniform lengths of 6' or over, subject to established length tolerances and with ends included according to established length schedules; ie. 10'-0" with ends or 6'-5" with ends.

5) Standard Lengths - Standard lengths are lengths which have been recommended in a Simplified Practice Recommendation or established as a Commercial Standard by the National Bureau of Standards, United States Department of Commerce as standards for certain products.

6) Stock Lengths - Normally certain uniform lengths subject to established tolerances (including Standard Lengths) actually carried in mill and warehouse stocks. The normal length actually carried will vary considerably with the product, alloy, size, mill source, and warehouse location.

7) Stock Lengths with Ends - In some products and sizes it is customary to include with stock lengths the end pieces resulting from cutting, according to established length schedules.

LOCK SEAM TUBE

See Tube.

LONGITUDINAL CURL

A unidirectional departure from longitudinal flatness.

M

MALLEABILITY

The property of a meal that permits deformation by rolling, heading, hammering, or extension by pressure without fracturing.

MATTE DIP

See Dip Solution.

MILLING

See Overhauling and Scalping.

NON-REFRACTORY

A term applied to those copper alloys which because of a lack of hardness or abrasiveness present relatively little difficulty in maintaining standard dimensional tolerances.

O

OIL STAIN

See Stains.

OPEN SEAM TUBE

See Tube.

ORANGE PEEL SURFACE

The surface roughness resulting from working metal of large grain size. The surface is similar in texture to an orange peel.

OVERHAULING

The process of cutting away the surface layer from bars or plates after breakdown rolling. The object of this is to remove the minor surface casting defects and oxide.

P

PAPER INTERLEAVE

A layer of interleaving paper is interspersed between layers of metal (either coils or cut sheets).

PATENT LEVELING

See Straightening and Flattening.

PHASE

The physically distinct and homogeneous portion of matter in a heterogeneous system. In alloy systems, phases are usually identified by the Greek letters, alpha, beta, etc.

PIERCING

Punching holes in sheet or strip, or walls of shells.

PIT

1) A hole or defect remaining when a foreign particle embedded in the metal surface falls out.

2) A cavity resulting from localized corrosion or over-etching.

PLATE

A flat rolled product over 3/16" (0.188") in thickness and over 12" in width.

POINTING

1) The reduction of the diameter of ends of tubes, rod, or wire in order that they may be started through the drawing die. 2) The cutting of a taper point on wire to be made into wood screws and similar products.

POLISHING

The finishing of metal surfaces by a compound impregnated in the surfaces of a hard fabric faced wheel which rotates at high speed. Also see Buffing.

R

READY TO FINISH

A general mill term applied to the size and condition of a product prior to the final drawing or rolling operation.

RECRYSTALLIZATION

The change in grain structure which occurs when the metal is annealed, during which the deformed grains, strain hardened by working, become new unstrained grains.

REDUCTION OF AREA

The decrease of the area of the cross-section of a metal test specimen when fractured in tension testing. It is a criterion of ductility.

REEL

A device on which narrow strip is wound to.

REFRACTORY

A term applied to those copper alloys which, because of their hardness or abrasiveness require dimensional tolerances greater than those established for non-refractory alloys.

RELIEF ANNEALING

See Annealing

RESIDUAL STRESS

See Stress.

RIPPLE

A slight transverse wave or shadow mark repeated at intervals, sometimes observed on flat products.

ROCKWELL TEST

See Tests.

ROLL FLATTENING

See Straightening and Flattening.

ROLL STRAIGHTENING

See Straightening.

ROLLED EDGE STRIP

See Strip.

ROLLED EDGES

See Finished Edges

ROLLED FLAT PRODUCTS

See Flat Products

ROLLING

The process of passing metal between rolls under pressure to reduce its thickness.

1) Cold Rolling - This process is carried out below the softening point of the metal and with copper alloys, usually at room temperature.

2) Hot Rolling - This process is carried out above the softening temperature and with copper alloys, usually at temperatures from about 1200F to 1700F, 650C to 927C.

ROUNDED CORNERS

See Finished Edges.

ROUNDED EDGES

See Finished Edges.

ROUNDNESS

See Tube Measurement Terms.

S

SCALE

1) A heavy oxide coating on copper and copper alloys resulting from exposure to high temperatures in an oxidizing atmosphere. 2) A product resulting from the corrosion of metals.

SCALPING

The process of removing by means of rotating cutters or cutter heads the surface layer from bars or rods to eliminate minor surface casting defects and oxide. See Overhauling, Die Scalping, or Die Shaving.

SEAMLESS TUBE

See Tube.

SEASON CRACKING

Spontaneous failure of some metals by cracking under the combined action of corrosion and residual stresses. Season cracking can be prevented by relief annealing which removes entirely or reduces to a safe limit the residual stresses without affecting the temper and physical properties of the material. Also see Corrosion, Stress Corrosion.

SHEARED EDGES

The edges resulting from press shearing to final width and length. These edges are straighter than slit edges.

SHEET

A flat rolled product up to and including 0.188" in thickness and over 20" in width.

SLAB

A casting in the form of a bar used for rolling into strip.

SLIT EDGES

The edges resulting from cutting to width by rotary slitters.

SOLDERING

Joining metals by fusion of alloys that have relatively low melting points - mostly commonly, lead-base or tin-base alloys, which are the soft solders. Hard solders are alloys that have silver, copper, or nickel bases. Use of these alloys with melting points higher than 800F, 427C, is properly called "Brazing".

SPILL

A defect which originates during casting and after rolling or drawing appears as a discontinuity either on the surface or as a faint streak, which on distortion becomes open or blistered.

SPOOL

A small reel. Also see Reel.

SQUARE CORNERS

See Finished Edges.

SQUARE SHEARED METAL

See Resquared Metal.

STAINS

1) Acid Stain - See Pickle Stain. 2) Air Stain - Superficial, uniform light-to-dark brown discoloration or dulling of the initial luster due to atmospheric attack. 3) Oil Stain - Localized brown or black discoloration on the surface of a product caused by incomplete removal or burning of lubricants. 4) Water Stain - Localized light-to-dark and often iridescent residue with sharply outlined darker border left from evaporation of water acquired from mill processing, transit or storage.

STRAIGHTENING AND FLATTENING

Any process applied to flat rolled products to eliminate any general or local curvature, either with respect to flatness or edgewise curvature.

1) Roll Flattening - The process of flattening a product by a machine with a number of small cylindrical rolls so positioned as to repeatedly flex the product and thus remove certain irregularities in shape. Roll flattening practically eliminates longitudinal curl, burr, and dish. It reduces edgewise curvature of narrow strip. This operation reduces buckles, but is relatively ineffective in eliminating wavy edges, ripples, and twist. Roll flattening is ordinarily applied to a Flat Rolled Product within the approximate range 0.010" to 0.125" thick and in widths to about 48", and is particularly effective on annealed tempers, but is progressively less effective with increase in degree of rolled temper.

2) Stretcher Straightening, (Patent Leveling) - Applicable to Flat Straight Lengths. A process which simultaneously flattens and straightens a product by longitudinally stretching it beyond its elastic limit. This process practically removes buckles, ripples, wavy edges, twist, and edgewise curvature, is partially effective in removing longitudinal curl but is ineffective in removal of crown, dish, and burr. It is commonly applied to flat rolled products within the approximate size range of 3" to 48" wide and 0.012" to 0.050" thick. It is particularly effective on all annealed tempers and on rolled tempers up to Half Hard.

STRESSES

1) Applied Stress - Stresses that are set up and exist in a body during application of an external load. 2) Residual Stress - Stresses that remain within a body as the result of plastic deformation, casting, or rapid temperature change.

STRESS CORROSION

See Corrosion.

STRIP

A flat product, other than Flat Wire, up to and including 0.188" in thickness and generally furnished as follows:

1) With slit, sheared, or slit and edge rolled edges in widths up to 20" inclusive.

2) With finished drawn or rolled edges in widths over 1-1/4" to 12 inclusive.

T

TEMPER

The condition produced in a metal by mechanical or thermal treatment and having characteristic structure and mechanical properties.

1) Annealed Tempers - Tempers produced by annealing and usually defined by a nominal grain size or grain size range. The most commonly specified nominal annealed tempers are as follows:

0.015mm 0.050mm 0.025mm 0.070mm 0.035mm 0.100mm

Certain alloys not composed entirely of alpha grains do not lend them-selves to classification under the above listed tempers. The terms "Light Anneal" and "Soft Anneal" are also commonly used. Their mechanical properties are defined by applicable specifications.

2) Annealed to Temper - Metal annealed to a tensile strength or Rockwell specification approximately equal to that specification normally met by rolling to temper. This temper provides greater ductility and better finish at same tensile strength. Not available in all alloys and restricted to Half Hard temper or softer. Metal need not be fully recrystallized.

3) Rolled Tempers - a) For flat products, these tempers are designated by the following terms and defined in applicable specifications:

Eighth Hard Quarter Hard Half Hard Hard Extra Hard

Three Quarter Hard Spring Extra Spring Ultra Spring Super Spring

b) For tube, the temper designations commonly used are Light Drawn, Drawn (general purpose) and Hard Drawn, and are defined in applicable specifications.

i) Light Drawn Temper - Generally applied to tube where some degree of stiffness is desired without serious impairment of bending qualities.

ii) Drawn (General Purpose) Temper - Applicable to tube only, commonly used where there is no real requirement for high strength or hardness on the one hand or for bending qualities on the other.

iii) Hard Drawn Temper - Used only where there is need for a tube as hard or as strong as is commercially feasible for the size in question.

TENSILE STRENGTH

The value obtained by dividing the maximum load observed during tensile straining by the specimen cross-sectional area before straining. Also called "Ultimate Strength". It is usually expressed in pounds per square inch.

TENSION TEST

See Tests.

TESTS

1) Bend - A test sometimes made to indicate ductility or bending quality by bending a suitable specimen about a predetermined radius through a predetermined angle.

2) Brinell Hardness - A test made to determine hardness on relatively thick sections of metal by pressing a steel ball of specified diameter into a test specimen under a specified load. This test is seldom used on copper and copper-base alloys. See ASTM E 10.

3) Creep - A test to determine the extension of metallic materials due to the combined effects of temperature, tensile stress, and time. Inherently, it is a long term test not suitable for specification purposes. See ASTM E 22.

4) Cup - A test to indicate the ductility of sheet or strip wherein a cup is drawn from the metal until it fractures. Several modifications of the original Erichsen method are now in use. See ASTM A 344.

5) Endurance - A test to determine the endurance limit of a metal's resistance to fatigue by subjecting a specimen to repeated alternating or pulsating stresses.

6) Expansion (Pin) - A test used to determine the capacity of the tube for expansion and to reveal surface defects by pushing a tapered pin into the open end of a specimen. See ASTM B 153.

7) Flattening - A test made on annealed tube to indicate ductility and freedom from mechanical defects.

8) Hydrostatic - A test to prove soundness and resistance to leakage of tube and pipe under internal water pressure.

9) Impact - A test made to determine the resistance of metals to failure by sudden shock load. See ASTM E 23.

10) Mercurous Nitrate - An accelerated test to indicate the resistance of copper-base alloy products to season cracking. See ASTM B 154.

11) Pneumatic - A test used to prove resistance to leakage of tube or pipe by the application of internal air pressure to the product while submerged in water.

12) Rockwell Hardness - A test to measure hardness by determining the depth of penetration into a specimen of a penetrator under predetermined conditions of test. See ASTM E 18.

13) Tension - A test to determine one or more of the following: tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, and contraction of area. See ASTM E 8.

14) Torsion - A test to determine the strength in torsion by measuring the torque required to twist a specimen of given length through a predetermined angle.

T.O.E. (TOTAL OTHER ELEMENTS)

Elements other than those listed.

TOLERANCE

The amount by which any characteristic, such as dimensional, chemical, physical, or mechanical properties, may vary from that specified.

TRANSCRYSTALLINE

A term usually applied to a type of crack that passes through the grains as opposed to one that follows the grain boundaries.

TRANSCRYSTALLINE CRACKING

Fracture of metal through the grain or crystals as distinguished from intercrystalline cracking.

TUBE

A hollow product of round or any other cross-section, having a continuous periphery.

1) Composite Tube - A finished tube consisting of two different metal tubes mechanically bonded together by drawing one inside the other.

2) Condenser Tube - See Heat Exchanger Tube.

3) Copper Drainage Tube (DWV) - Seamless copper tube conforming to the particular dimensions commercially known as Copper Drainage Tube (DWV). It is intended for above ground use only, for soil, waste, vent, and other non-pressure applications.

4) Copper Service Tube - Bendable copper water tube for underground water services. See Copper Water Tube.

5) Copper Water Tube - Seamless copper tube conforming to the particular dimensions commercially known as Copper Water Tube and designated as Types "K", "L", and "M".

6) Embossed Tube - Tube, the outside surface of which has been ornamented by means of rolling with a design in relief, regularly repeated in a longitudinal direction.

7) Finnned Tube - Tube having a series of metallic ribs on the outside of inside surface either parallel to the longitudinal axis or circumferentially extended from the tube to increase the effective surface area for heat transfer applications. The fins may be mechanically applied, drawn, or integrally extruded from the tube wall.

8) Fluted Tube - Tube of nominally uniform wall thickness, having regular longitudinal concave corrugations with sharp cusps between corrugations.

9) Fluted Outside and Plain Inside Tube - Tube having fluted outside periphery and plain inside periphery.

10) Heat Exchanger Tube - Tube manufactured to special requirements as to dimensional tolerances, finish, and temper for use in condensers and other heat exchangers.

11) Lock Seam Tube - Tube made from sheet or strip, with a longitudinal, mechanically locked seam.

12) Open Seam Tube - A shape, other than extruded shape, of generally tubular form of nominally uniform wall thickness but having a longitudinal unjoined seam or gap of width not greater than 25% of the outside diameter or greater overall dimension.

13) Reeded Outside - Plain Inside Tube - Tube having reeded outside periphery and plain inside periphery.

14) Reeded Tube - Tube of nominally uniform wall thickness having regular longitudinal convex corrugations, either with rounded or sharp cusps between corrugations. See Figure 14.

15) Roped Tube - Tube of nominally uniform wall thickness, having the appearance of stranded rope.

16) Seamless Tube - Tube produced with a continuous periphery at all stages of the operation, in contrast to "brazed", "welded", "open seam", and "lock seam" tube.

17) Twisted Tube - Tube of symmetrical cross-section other than round having nominally uniform wall thickness and which has been twisted.

18) Welded Tube - Tube made from sheet or strip, with a longitudinal welded joint.

TUBE MEASUREMENT TERMS

1) Concentricity - Concentricity implies coincidence of the centers of the OD and ID. However, since a relative displacement (eccentricity) of the centers is difficult to measure directly, while the resulting variation in wall thickness is relatively easy to measure, concentricity and eccentricity are preferably expressed in terms of the latter.

2) Diameter - Average Inside - For all practical purposes, the average ID is the average, at only one cross-section, of the maximum and minimum measured diameters.

3) Diameter - Average Outside - The average OD is the average, at any one cross-section, of the maximum and minimum measured diameters.

4) Diameter - At Any Point - Inside - Inside diameter may be measured at any point around the periphery. Such individual measurements may depart from the nominal due either to the tube being larger than nominal, smaller than nominal, out-of-round, or a possible combination of these.

5) Diameter - At Any Point - Outside - Outside diameter may be measured at any point around the periphery. Such individual measurements may depart from the nominal due either to the tube being larger than nominal, smaller than nominal, out-of-round, or a possible combination of these.

6) Roundness - Roundness implies a truly circular periphery of the inside or the outside surface. The deviation from roundness is measured as the difference between major and minor diameters as determined at any one cross-section of the tube.

7) Wall Thickness - At Any Point - Wall thickness may be measured at any point around the periphery. Such individual measurements may depart from the nominal due to the wall being either thicker than nominal or thinner than nominal, or to the tube being eccentric, or a possible combination of these.

8) Wall Thickness - Average - For all practical purposes, the average wall thickness is the average at any one cross-section, of the maximum and minimum wall thickness.

TUBE SHEET

See Condenser Tube Plate.

TUBING

A series or system of tubes, collectively. This term is not recommended to designate an individual tube or type of tube.

TWIST

A winding departure from flatness.

TWR

Abbreviation for “Traverse Wound Reels.” Metal supplied on reels in traverse wound condition.

U

ULTIMATE STRENGTH

See Tensile Strength.

W

WALL THICKNESS - AT ANY POINT

See Tube Measurement Terms.

WALL THICKNESS – AVERAGE

See Tube Measurement Terms.

WATER STAINS

See Stains.

WATER TUBE

See Tube, Copper Water Tube

WAVY EDGES

A wrinkled condition along the edges of the product, with a relatively flat center portion.

WELDING

Process of producing localized coalescence of metal by heating to suitable temperatures, with or without the application of pressure, and with or without the use of filler metal. The filler metal either has a melting point approximately the same as the base metals or has a melting point below that of the base metals, but above 800F. Common welding processes are:

Oxyacetylene Welding Gas Shielded Arc Welding Resistance Welding (Spot, Seam, Butt) Coated Metal Arc Welding Carbon Arc Welding

WELDED TUBE

See Tube.

WELDING ROD

Filler metal, in wire or rod form, used in gas welding and brazing processes, and those arc-welding processes wherein the electrode does not furnish the filler metal.

Y

YIELD STRENGTH

The stress at which a material takes a permanent change in configuration. Measured at 0.2% offset as a standard.

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